our history

The Massachusetts General Hospital

Massachusetts General Hospital, 1847
Drawing of the Bulfinch Building at
Massachusetts General Hospital, 1847

Founded in 1811, the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is the third oldest general hospital in the United States. The 907-bed medical center offers sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic care in virtually every specialty and sub-specialty in medicine and surgery. Among these specialties, the MGH Neurology Service has a long and rich history of treating patients throughout New England and the world, and researching their diseases.

While the official Neurology Department was not formally established until 1911, James Jackson Putnam was named "Physician to Out Patients with Diseases of the Nervous System" in the early 1870s. He has been called the pioneer neurologist of New England and remained active treating patients and contributing medical writings until 1912. E. Wyllys Taylor was named chief the year Putnam stepped down. In 1926, a Neurological and Neurosurgical Ward opened after decades of discussion, and a year later James B. Ayer was made chief of the service. Charles S. Kubik succeeded him in 1946, followed by Raymond Adams – who was invited to return from Boston City Hospital as Chief in 1951.

The use of ether revolutionized surgery and is captured in this
early depiction of the MGH Ether Dome, now the site of
weekly grand rounds for the MGH Neurology Department.

Trustees of the hospital have long documented support for research as an essential and imperative part of the hospital's function, and these early leaders in the MGH Neurology Department fostered such exploration. Early laboratories include neuropathology, cortical (psychological) testing, the first laboratory of electroencephalography in a US hospital, and the first spinal fluid lab in the country. In 1951, Dr. Adams fostered the study of how immunology could clarify a number of neurologic diseases, notably multiple sclerosis. Researchers at that time pair investigated blood-nerve barriers, the basic processes of delayed cellular immunity and created the first experimental model of Guillian Barré syndrome, experimental allergic polyneuritis.

In addition, many diseases received their first or most definitive clinical or pathologic descriptions through the astute observations of MGH neurologists. For example, early MGH researchers proved the mechanism for delirium tremens and Korsakoff's psychosis, identified the neuropathology of nutritional optic neuropathy, defined cerebellar hemorrhage as a clinical entity for the first time. Due to the painstaking work of Dr. C. Miller Fisher, many of the lacunar stroke syndromes were identified, as well as the pathogeneses of small vessel infarction and carotid stenosis.

Mummy from Thebes, donated to MGH
in 1823, is located in the Ether Dome.

Many young neurologists have graduated from the esteemed Neurology residency program, with careful attention going towards scientific study. In late 1952, Dr. Adams helped establish a division of pediatric neurology at the MGH. Throughout the 1970s and 80s, researchers developed a relationship with the Fernald State School in Waltham with the Shriver Center to study diagnosis, treatment and prevention of neurologic diseases causing mental retardation and other disabilities. Dr. Adams retired in 1978 and Joseph Martin assumed the position of chief.

In 1989, Dr. Martin left to become provost at UCSF, and later Dean of Harvard Medical School. In 1991, Dr. Anne B. Young became MGH's first female chief at the hospital, and the only female chief of neurology at an academic hospital in the country. She is a world renowned expert in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. She was recruited to MGH as chair of neurology in 1993. The Massachusetts General Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease (MIND) was founded in 2001 by Dr. Young.

Dr. Merit Cudkowicz, MD, a graduate of the MGH adult neurology residency program was appointed chief of neurology in May of 2012. She is Director of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Clinic and Co-Director of the Neuromuscualr Division at MGH. Her research and clinical activities are dedicated to the study and treatment of patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in particular amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s Disease (HD).

The MGH remains committed to strong clinical excellence and training the next generation of neurologists and neuroscientists. Today there are over 80 clinical neurologists and over 200 research neurologists at the MGH, as well as 51 residents, and 8 divisions encompassing all major subspecialties of neurology. MGH has a strong commitment to research, with a hospital-wide annual budget of over $500 million. It has the largest hospital-based research program in the country.